is a loss of blood from the blood vessels.Severe
or continued bleeding may lead to collapse and
death. Thus, the first aider must aim to control
severe bleeding. The total quantity of blood in
the human body varies according to size. An adult
can lose 500 ml of blood without any harm, but
the loss of 300 ml might cause death in an
:severe bleeding is serious. The extent of
bleeding may be hidden . Act quickly !
direct pressure to the site of bleeding
and rest the injured part when possible
nothing by mouth
medical aid urgently.
direct pressure to the wound with your fingers or
soon as possible , place a clean dressing over
the wound. Apply a bulky pad extending beyond the
edges of the wound, and firmly bandage. If
bleeding continues , leave the dressing in place
and relocate the pad.
not disturb pads or bandages once bleeding is
severe bleeding cannot be controlled by direct pressure ,
it may be necessary to apply pressure to the pressure
points. These are found on the main artery above the
wound. When bleeding has been controlled, remove pressure
to the point and reapply direct pressure to the wound.
Occasionally, in major limb injuries such as partial
amputations and shark attack , severe bleeding cannot be
controlled by direct pressure. Only then, it may be
necessary to resort to the application of a constrictive
bandage above the elbow or knee.
a constrictive bandage
a strip of firm cloth, at least 7.5 centimetres
(3 inches) wide and about 75 centimetres
(30 inches)long. This may be improvized from
clothing or a narrow folded triangular bandage.
Bind the cloth strip firmly
around the injured limb above the bleeding point
until a pulse can no longer be felt beyond the
constrictive bandage and bleeding is controlled.
Note the time application. After
30 minutes, release tje bandage and check for
bleeding . If there is no bleeding, remove it .If
bleeding recommences, apply direct pressure. If
this is unsuccessfully, reapply the constrictive
bandage, and recheck every 30 minutes.
Ensure that the bandage
is clearly visible and inform medical aid of the
location and time of its application.
Evidence of internal
bleeding from some organs may be seen by the first aider.
For example :
coughing up red
vomiting blood the
colour of coffee grounds or bright red. The blood
may be mixed with food.
passing of faeces
with a black, tarry appearance
passing of faeces
which are red in colour
which has a red or smoky appearance.
Concealed bleeding within
the abdomen may be suspected when there is :
Internal bleeding will be
accompanied by any of the following symptons and signs :
- lay the casualty down
- raise the legs or bend
- loosen tight clothing
- seek medical aid
- give nothing by mouth
- reassure the casualty
first aider uses?] [DRABC] [Shock]
[Bleeding] [Burns] [Limb injuries]
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1997-99 Red Crescent Society
Of St Andrew Secondary School Muar,Johor,Malaysia. All rights reserved.