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CONTENTS

Causes

Effect

When to seek medical

Rescue Of The Burns Casualty

Management

 

 

 

Causes

Burns may be caused by:

  • excessive heat, e.g.fire,steam, hot objects or liquids
  • friction,e.g.rope burn
  • chemicals,e.g.acids
  • electricity,e.g.domestic, high voltage
  • radiation,e.g. sun, microwaves,sun lamps.
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Effect

Burns may result in:

  • death of the superficial layers of the skin or, in severe cases,the whole skin and deeper tissues
  • damage to the superficial blood vessels with outpouring of fluid, seen as blisters if the skin is intact
  • a raw area, which may lead to infection severe pain
  • the injured area becoming red. swollen and blistered
  • shock
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When to seek medical

extensive burns are dangerous and my be fatal. Seek medical aid if:

  • the burn is deep (full thickness) - the skin may lok white, or it may be black and charred. The casualty may not feel pain
  • a superficial burn (a red, painful area which may blister) is larger than a 20 cent piece
  • the burn involves the airway , hands,face or genitals
  • you are unsure about how serious the burn is.
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Rescue Of The Burns Casualty

Rescue can be dangerous - leave to expert help, if available.

If entering a burning building:

  • feel the temperature of the door. If very hot do not enter. If cold or slightly warm, crouch low and open slowly
  • cover mouth and nose with damp cloth

If domestic voltage electricity is involved:

  • switch off the current or jerk the cable free
  • if this i not possible, remove the casualty from the current using non-conducting, dry materials,e.g. dry clothing or a dry wooden stick
  • do not cut the table.

if high voltage electricity is involved:

  • wait until the current is disconnected by the appropriate electricity authority
  • ensure you and any bystanders are safe
  • do not touch the casualty or any conducting material which is also in contact until the current is disconnected.
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Management

  1. DRABC
  2. remove the casualty from danger. Do not become amother casualty yourself
  3. put out burning clothing. Smother with a blanket or jacket,or use water
  4. hold the burnt area under cold, gently running water until the part has returned to normal body temperature(up to 10 minutes)
  5. remove jewellery and clothing, but leave any that is stuck
  6. cover the burn with a sterile, non-stick dressing
  7. seek medical aid urgently
  8. if the casualty id conscious and thirsty, give frequent small amounts of water. Do not give alcohol
  9. alleviate extreme pain by gently pouring cold water over the dressing

Warning

  • Do not apply any lotions, ointment or oily fressings
  • Do not prick or break blisters
  • Do not give alcohol to drink
  • Do not overcool the casualty, particularly if very young, or if the burnt area is extensive. Overcooling may be indicated by shivering
  • Do not use towels, cotton wool, blankets o adhesive fressings directly on the wound.
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[Introduction] [What a first aider uses?] [DRABC] [Shock] [Bleeding] [Burns] [Limb injuries] [Fractures]

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