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When you approach the scene of an accident or emergency, follow the DRABC Action Plan:

DRABC

DANGER

RESPOND

AIRWAY

BREATHING

CIRCULATION

EAR(mouth-to-mouth resuscitation)

Successful CPR

 

 

DANGER

- to you

- to other

- to the casualty

  • make sure that no one elso gets hurt. You will not be able to help if you are also a casualty

  • only proceed if it is safe to do so.

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RESPOND

- is the casualty consious?

  • gently shake the casualty and ask : 'Can you hear me?' , 'What is your name?'

  • if the casualty is conscious,check for and manage bleeding and other injuries

  • if the casualty is unconscious,he/she should be turned on the side.

Turning an unconscious casualty on the side to clear and open the airway

  1. Kneel beside the casualty.

  2. Place the casualty's farther arm at a right angle to the body.

  3. Place the nearer arm across the chest.

  4. Bend the nearer knee up.

  5. Roll the casualty away from you.Support the casualty in this position until airway and breathing have been checked.

A Clear and open the AIRWAY

Clearing the airway

  1. with the casualty supported on the side,tilt the head backwards and slightly down.

  2. Open the mouth and clear any foreign object.Only remove dentures if loose or broken.

Opening the airway

  1. Place one hand high on the casualty's forehead.

  2. Support the chin with the other hand.

  3. Gently tilt the head backwards.

  4. Lift the jaw forward and open the casualty's mouth slightly.

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AIRWAY

Clearing the airway

  1. WIth the casualty supported on the side,tilt the head backwards and slightly down.

  2. Open the mouth and clear any foreign objects.Only remove dentures if loose or broken.

Opening the airway

  1. Place one hand high on the casualty's forehead.

  2. Support the chin with the other hand.

  3. Gently tilt the head backwards.

  4. Lift the jaw and open the casualty's mouth slightly.

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BREATHING

- look for the chest rising and falling.

- listen for the sound of breathing

- feel woth your cheek

  • if the casualty is breathing , ensure that he/she is in a stable side position. Check for and managed bleeding and other injuries.

  • if the casualty is not breathing . turn onto the back and commence EAR (expired air resuscitation) , giving 5 full breaths in 10 seconds.

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EAR (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation)

  1. Knee beside the casualty.

  2. Keep the casualty's ehad tilted back.

  3. Pinch the casualty's nostrils with your fingers or seal with your cheek.

  4. Lift the jaw forward with your other hand.

  5. Take a deep breath and open your mouth wide.

  6. Place your mouth firmly over the casualty's mouth making an airtight seal.

  7. Breathe into the casualty's mouth.

  8. Remove your mouth and turn your head to observe the chest fall and listen or feel for exhaled air.

  9. If the chest does not rise and fall , check head tilt position first , then check for and clear foreign objects in the airway.

  10. Give 5 full breaths in 10 seconds , then check the carotid (neck) pulse for 5 seconds. If pulse is present, continue EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per minute.

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CIRCULATION

  • feel the pulse at the neck (carotid pulse)

  • if pulse is present , continue EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per minute. Check breathing anf the pulse after 1 minute, then after every 2 minutes

  • if pulse is not present, commence CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)

  • check breathing and the pulse after 1 minute , then after every2 minutes. If the pulse returns, continue EAR. If breathing returns , turn the casualty to a stable side position. Check for and manage shock, bleeding and other injuries

  • seek medical aid.

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Successful CPR

If a casualty is not breathing and has no pulse , you should try to give cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, even if performed expertly , you may not be successfully in saving the casualty's life. Success depends on the cause of the injury or illness, how quickly you are able to respond, and how quickly you are able to respond, and how quickly expert medical aidarrives

.Call medical aid as soon as possible.

What's next?

After managing life-threatening problems turn the casualty to a stable side position. Remember that you must call medical aid as soon as possible, You should then undertake an orderly assessment of the casualty, looking for any bleeding , then other injuries such as burns and fractures. Note any tenderness,swelling, wounds or deformity.

Examine the casualty in the following order :

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[Introduction] [What a first aider uses?] [DRABC] [Shock] [Bleeding] [Burns] [Limb injuries] [Fractures]

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