is the casualty consious?
shake the casualty and ask : 'Can you hear me?' ,
'What is your name?'
the casualty is conscious,check
for and manage bleeding and other injuries
the casualty is unconscious,he/she
should be turned on the side.
an unconscious casualty on the side to clear and open the
Kneel beside the casualty.
Place the casualty's farther arm
at a right angle to the body.
Place the nearer arm across the
Bend the nearer knee up.
Roll the casualty away from
you.Support the casualty in this position until
airway and breathing have been checked.
A Clear and open the AIRWAY
with the casualty supported on
the side,tilt the head backwards and slightly
Open the mouth and clear any
foreign object.Only remove dentures if loose or
Place one hand high on the
Support the chin with the other
Gently tilt the head backwards.
Lift the jaw forward and open the
casualty's mouth slightly.
WIth the casualty
supported on the side,tilt the head backwards and
Open the mouth and
clear any foreign objects.Only remove dentures if
loose or broken.
Place one hand
high on the casualty's forehead.
Support the chin
with the other hand.
Gently tilt the
Lift the jaw and
open the casualty's mouth slightly.
- look for the chest
rising and falling.
- listen for the sound of
- feel woth your cheek
if the casualty is
breathing , ensure that he/she
is in a stable side position. Check for and
managed bleeding and other injuries.
if the casualty is
not breathing . turn onto the
back and commence EAR (expired air resuscitation)
, giving 5 full breaths in 10 seconds.
Knee beside the
casualty's ehad tilted back.
casualty's nostrils with your fingers or seal
with your cheek.
Lift the jaw
forward with your other hand.
Take a deep breath
and open your mouth wide.
Place your mouth
firmly over the casualty's mouth making an
Breathe into the
Remove your mouth
and turn your head to observe the chest fall and
listen or feel for exhaled air.
If the chest does
not rise and fall , check head tilt position
first , then check for and clear foreign objects
in the airway.
Give 5 full
breaths in 10 seconds , then check the carotid
(neck) pulse for 5 seconds. If pulse is present,
continue EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per
feel the pulse at
the neck (carotid pulse)
if pulse is
present , continue EAR at the rate of 15 breaths
per minute. Check breathing anf the pulse after 1
minute, then after every 2 minutes
if pulse is not
present, commence CPR (cardiopulmonary
and the pulse after 1 minute , then after every2
minutes. If the pulse returns, continue EAR. If
breathing returns , turn the casualty to a stable
side position. Check for and manage shock,
bleeding and other injuries
seek medical aid.
If a casualty is not
breathing and has no pulse , you should try to give
cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, even if performed
expertly , you may not be successfully in saving the
casualty's life. Success depends on the cause of the
injury or illness, how quickly you are able to respond,
and how quickly you are able to respond, and how quickly
expert medical aidarrives
.Call medical aid as soon as
life-threatening problems turn the casualty to a stable
side position. Remember that you must call medical aid as
soon as possible, You should then undertake an orderly
assessment of the casualty, looking for any bleeding ,
then other injuries such as burns and fractures. Note any
tenderness,swelling, wounds or deformity.
Examine the casualty in the
following order :
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[ What a
first aider uses?] [DRABC] [ Shock] [ Bleeding]
injuries] [ Fractures]
1997-99 Red Crescent Society
Of St Andrew Secondary School Muar,Johor,Malaysia. All rights reserved.